Tanzania Nchi ya Kwanza kwa Amani Afrika Mashariki
JAMHURI ya Muungano wa Tanzania imetajwa kuwa ndiyo nchi ya kwanza (inayoongoza) kwa kuwa na manai katika Ukanda wa Afrika Mashariki.
Kwa mujibu wa jarida la Kimataifa la Global Peace Index limetoa takwimu za mwaka 2020 zikionyesha kuwa Tanzania imepanda juu huku ikiwa ya sita kwa Afrika na ikishika nafasi ya 52 duniani kote.
Sub-Saharan Africa recorded a slight fall in peacefulness on the 2020 GPI, with an overall score deterioration of 0.5 per cent.
Twenty countries in the region improved in peacefulness while 24 deteriorated. Disputes over election results and demands for political change have led to civil unrest and political instability in several countries across the region, with violent protests breaking out in many countries over the past year.
Despite retaining its place as the least peaceful country in sub-Saharan Africa, South Sudan made progress toward building the political foundations for peace at the end of the GPI measurement year. In March 2020, the country’s feuding leaders, Riek Machar and Salva Kiir, reached a political settlement and formed government, putting an end to more than six years of armed conflict.
The region’s three largest improvers in peacefulness in the last year were South Africa, Cote d’Ivoire and Equatorial Guinea, all of which recorded improvements of more than six per cent. Both South Africa and Cote d’Ivoire improved across all three GPI domains, while Equatorial Guinea substantially improved on the
Benin experienced the biggest deterioration of any country in the world, falling 34 places in the ranking to 106th on the 2020 GPI.
Sporadic clashes erupted across the country following the election in April 2019, in which the opposition party was effectively banned, leading to a deterioration in political instability.
Niger recorded the second largest deterioration in the region. Over the last year, cross-border armed robberies and violent crime by gangs led to a deterioration on the violent crime indicator. Niger ranked 16th highest for entrenched criminality in Africa in the 2019 Africa Organised Crime Index, with a criminality score considerably higher than the continental average. As a consequence, Niger recorded a deterioration in perceptions of criminality in the last year.
Nigeria continues to face challenges on both Safety and Security and Ongoing Conflict domains. The conflict between government forces and Boko Haram in the northeast led to an estimated 640 civilians killed in 2019.
In addition, Nigeria’s problems with cross-border smuggling and imports undercutting local producers have led the government to shut down its borders, causing Nigeria’s relationship with neighbouring countries to deteriorate. Over the last year, the country has recorded further deteriorations in Militarisation and Ongoing Conflict and an overall deterioration in peacefulness of 0.8 per cent.
Economic problems have left the Gambia vulnerable to further deteriorations in peacefulness. With a youth unemployment rate of over 40 per cent, public dissatisfaction and migration have been on the rise.
In addition, the country has recorded a rise in police brutality, particularly in clashes with anti-government protesters.
However, the opening of the Farafenni bridge over the Gambia River in early 2019, reconnecting the Gasamance region in Senegal with the rest of the territory, has eased tensions in the region and led to a de facto truce between the Senegal army and separatist groups. Senegal’s level of internal organised conflict has, therefore, improved and the Gambia has had improvements in political instability.